These resources explore the situation of children living in orphanages, some of the factors contributing to their placement there, and the grave consequences this can pose for them emotionally, socially, and psychologically. With this understanding, the resources shared below promote alternatives that respect a child’s need for the love and care of a family.

The Importance of Family Care

Families, Not Orphanages John Williamson, Aaron Greenberg, Better Care Network Working Paper Series, 2010.

A Family is for a Lifetime: A Discussion of the Need for Family Care for Children Impacted by AIDS Jan Williamson, The Synergy Project/USAID, 2004.

Keeping Children Out of Harmful Institutions: Why We Should be Investing in Family Based Care Corinna Csaky. Save the Children UK, 2009.

Roofs and Roots: The Care of Separated Children In the Developing World David Tolfree, Save the Children UK, 1995.

Love for Orphans Transforms Jedd Medefind, Catalyst Online.

The Limitation of Orphanages and Lack of Parental Care

Why Not Orphanages? Department of Social Welfare, Accra, Ghana, Orphans and Vulnerable Children Care Reform Initiative, 2011.

The Risk of Harm to Young Children in Institutional Care Kevin Browne, Save the Children and Better Care Network, 2010.

Kinnected FAQ ACCI Relief, 2014.

Research on Institutional Care of Vulnerable Children North American Council on Adoptable Children, 2005.

Children in Residential Care: The Zimbabwean Experience G. Powell, 2004.

A Last Resort: The Growing Concern About Children in Residential Care International Save the Children Alliance, London, UK, 2003.

Institutions vs. Foster Homes: The Empirical Base for a Century of Action Richard P. Barth, Jordan Institute for Families, University of North Carolina, 2002.

No Place Like Home: A Research Study of the Operations, Management, and Care Offered by Residential Facilities for Orphaned and Vulnerable Children Built Environment Support Group, 2007.

Home Truths: The Phenomenon of Residential Care for Children in a Time of AIDS Helen Meintjes, Sue Moses, Lizette Berry, and Ruth Mampane, 2007.

How Institutions are Harmful for Children Lumos, 2014.

The Science of Early Adversity: Is There a Role for Large Institutions in the Care of Vulnerable Children? Anne E Berens, Charles A Nelson, 2015.

Scripture, common sense, and years of academic research are all in agreement that children grow best in families. Family-based care options for children include: prevention and intervention services for families; reunification and post-permanency supports; relative or kinship care placement; temporary care, including foster family care; and legal permanency through guardianship and adoption if child is not able to return home.