When children do not have the option of remaining with their birth families, other approaches must be taken to prevent them from entering or remaining in orphanages. These resources begin to explore the circumstances in which kinship care, foster care and adoption might be appropriate and factors that should be considered in these situations.

The Better Care Toolkit The Better Care Network
This Toolkit consists of guidelines and manuals structured around five areas: Developing an Informed National Strategy; Standards and Policies for Quality Alternative Care; Individual Assessments, Care Planning and Family Reunification; Supporting Children in Care, their Families, and Alternative Caregivers; and Protection and Care in Emergencies.

Alternative Care in Emergencies Toolkit is an initiative of the Interagency Working Group on Unaccompanied and Separated Children which includes UNICEF, UNHCR, ICRC, Save the Children, IRC, and World Vision. The tools and guidance in this resource are designed to facilitate the process of planning and implementing interim care and related services for children separated from or unable to live with their families during an emergency

Friends in Need: A Handbook for the Care of Orphans in the Community Marion Derbyshire, A Viva Network Publication, 2002

Called to Care Toolkit, Parenting: A Journey of Love, Fulata Lusungu Moyo, 2011

Care of Orphans: Fostering Interventions for Children Whose Parents Die of AIDS in Ghana Alice A. Ansah-Koi, 2007

Every Child Deserves a Family: EveryChild’s Approach to Children Without Parental Care, EveryChild, 2009

Early Childhood Matters: Children Without Parental Care: Qualitative Alternatives, Teresa Moreno and Jan van Dongen (eds.), 2005

The Place of Foster Care in the Continuum of Care Choices: A Review of the Evidence for Policymakers, Family for Every Child, 2015

Strategies for Delivering Safe Effective Foster Care: A Review of the Evidence for Those Designing and Delivering Foster Care Programmes, Family for Every Child, 2015

Video: Praise’s Story Child’s I Foundation, 2016

Transitioning from Orphanages to Families

Changing Mindsets and Practice: Engaging Christian faith-based actors in deinstitutionalisation and child welfare systems reforms ACC International, 2016

Replicable Models for Transition to Family-Based Care Christian Alliance for Orphans, 2015

Permanency for Children: The Development of the BCS Global Foster-to-Adopt Pilot Project in Ethiopia Bethany Christian Services Global, LLC, 2013

Video: Ethiopia Foster to Adopt Program, Bethany Christian Services

Moving Young Children from Institutions to Family-based Care Centre for Forensic and Family Psychology, University of Birmingham, 2007.

Factors Related to the Placement into and Reintegration of Children from Catholic-affiliated Residential Care Facilities in Zambia Catholic Relief Services, 2016

Transforming Orphanage Care: A Case Example in Zimbabwe Devi Dee, 2004

Community Care or the Institution? Daphetone Siame, 2007

De-institutionalising and Transforming Children’s Services: A Guide to Good Practice Georgette Mulheir & Kevin Browne, 2007

Many of these resources are also available on the Better Care Network website. The Better Care Network offers a variety of additional resources on their website, including the Library of Documents, with over 10,500 resources including research, policy and program resources related to the care and protection of vulnerable children. The library is searchable by region, country or specific topics.